Exploring Different Mental Health Providers: Roles and Scope of Practice

Lisa Konick, PhD
Lisa Konick, PhD
August 24, 2023
Exploring Different Mental Health Providers: Roles and Scope of Practice

In today’s world, mental health has rightfully taken its place in the spotlight as an essential aspect of overall well-being. As more individuals recognize the importance of seeking professional help for their mental health concerns, a variety of mental health providers have emerged to offer support. Each type of provider plays a unique role in the mental health ecosystem, and understanding their roles and limitations can empower individuals to make informed decisions about their care. In this article, we will explore different mental health providers, providing a description of their roles and the limits of their scope of practice.

1. Psychiatrists

Psychiatrists are medical doctors (MDs) who specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental illnesses. They are licensed to prescribe medication and often work with individuals who have severe or complex mental health conditions. Psychiatrists use a combination of therapy and medication management to address issues such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. However, their primary focus is on the biological aspects of mental health, and they do not typically provide extensive talk therapy.

Scope of Practice:

  • Diagnosing mental health disorders.
  • Prescribing and managing medication.
  • Conducting medical assessments related to mental health.
  • Collaborating with other healthcare professionals

2. Psychologists

Psychologists are trained professionals who hold a doctoral degree (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) in psychology. They provide a range of psychological services, including therapy and assessment. Psychologists use evidence-based therapeutic techniques to address various mental health issues, emotional challenges, and behavioral concerns. They often specialize in different therapeutic modalities and can work with individuals, couples, families, and groups.

Scope of Practice:

  • Providing various forms of therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychotherapy, and more.
  • Conducting psychological and neuropsychological assessments and testing.
  • Offering insights into emotional and behavioral patterns.
  • Collaborating with other mental health professionals.

3. Counselors

Counselors, also known as therapists or mental health counselors, hold master’s degrees in counseling or a related field. They work with individuals to navigate personal and emotional challenges, offering support and guidance. Counselors often focus on specific areas, such as marriage and family therapy, addiction counseling, grief counseling, and career counseling.

Scope of Practice:

  • Providing individual, group, or family counseling.
  • Offering guidance for personal and emotional challenges.
  • Assisting with coping strategies and skill-building.
  • Referring clients to specialists for specific issues beyond their expertise.

4. Social Workers

Licensed clinical social workers (LCSWs) have a master’s degree in social work and are trained to provide therapy and support to individuals, families, and groups. They often work in clinical settings alongside other mental health professionals. Social workers take a holistic approach, considering social, economic, and environmental factors that impact mental health.

Scope of Practice:

  • Providing therapy and counseling services.
  • Advocating for clients’ social and emotional well-being.
  • Connecting clients with community resources and support.
  • Addressing the intersection of mental health and social factors.

5. Licensed Clinical Professional Counselors

Licensed Clinical Professional Counselors (LCPCs) hold master’s degrees in counseling and are licensed to provide therapy. They offer a wide range of mental health services and often specialize in areas such as trauma, relationships, and personal development. LCPCs use therapeutic techniques to help clients overcome challenges and promote emotional well-being.

Scope of Practice:

  • Conducting individual, group, couples, or family therapy.
  • Assisting clients in managing and overcoming mental health challenges.
  • Providing guidance for personal growth and self-improvement.
  • Collaborating with other professionals when necessary.

6. Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists (LMFTs)

Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists (LMFTs) are mental health professionals who specialize in working with couples and families to address relationship dynamics, communication issues, and family-related challenges. LMFTs hold master’s or doctoral degrees and are trained to consider the broader context of interpersonal relationships and how they impact individual well-being. LMFTs take a systemic approach, which means they view individuals within the context of their relationships and family systems. They work collaboratively with clients to develop healthier ways of relating to one another and navigating life’s challenges together.

Scope of Practice:

  • Providing therapy for couples and families to improve relationships and communication.
  • Addressing family conflicts, parenting challenges, and transitions.
  • Offering premarital counseling and guidance during life changes.
  • Collaborating with individuals to understand how family dynamics affect their mental health.

Licensed Clinicians vs. Pre-licensed Clinicians: Understanding the Difference

When seeking mental health care, it’s essential to be aware of the distinction between licensed clinicians and pre-licensed clinicians. Both categories offer valuable support, but their levels of experience, supervision, and scope of practice differ significantly.

Licensed Clinicians

Licensed mental health providers have completed their formal education, met all necessary clinical training requirements, and successfully passed licensing exams. They have gained the experience and expertise needed to practice independently and offer a wide range of mental health services. Licensed clinicians are often denoted by specific credentials related to their field, such as LCPC (Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor), LCSW (Licensed Clinical Social Worker), LMFT (Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist), or LCP (Licensed Clinical Psychologist).

Scope of Practice:

  • Conducting assessments and diagnoses.
  • Providing individual, couples, family, and group therapy.
  • Offering specialized interventions and evidence-based treatments.
  • Developing treatment plans and goals for clients.

Pre-licensed Clinicians

Pre-licensed clinicians, often referred to as interns, trainees, or residents, are mental health professionals who are in the process of completing their supervised clinical hours and requirements necessary for obtaining full licensure. They have completed their formal education and are gaining practical experience under the supervision of a licensed clinician. Pre-licensed clinicians are on their way to becoming fully licensed professionals and can provide valuable therapeutic services while still receiving guidance.

Scope of Practice:

  • Providing therapy under the supervision of a licensed clinician.
  • Gaining practical experience and skill development.
  • Delivering evidence-based treatments and interventions.
  • Collaborating with their supervising clinician to ensure high-quality care.

Limits of Scope for Pre-licensed Clinicians

Pre-licensed clinicians operate under the supervision of licensed professionals, which means they have limitations on their autonomy and scope of practice. They may not have the same level of experience or expertise as fully licensed clinicians and might consult with their supervisors for complex cases or decisions. Additionally, pre-licensed clinicians might have limitations in their ability to diagnose and treat certain conditions independently.

Choosing Between Licensed and Pre-licensed Clinicians

The choice between a licensed and pre-licensed clinician depends on various factors, including the severity of your mental health concerns, your personal preferences, and your budget. Licensed clinicians typically have more experience and independence, making them suitable for complex cases. However, pre-licensed clinicians can offer high-quality care at a potentially lower cost, making therapy more accessible.

Both licensed and pre-licensed clinicians play crucial roles in the mental health landscape. Licensed clinicians bring extensive experience and expertise to the table, while pre-licensed clinicians contribute their energy and dedication to providing effective therapy under supervision. When seeking mental health care, consider your individual needs and preferences, and don’t hesitate to inquire about the credentials and supervision status of your chosen clinician to make an informed decision that aligns with your goals for therapy.

Credentials Considered Pre-Licensed

  • Associate or Pre-Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (AMFT or APCC): Individuals holding these credentials are working toward becoming fully licensed Marriage and Family Therapists (LMFT). They have completed their master’s degree in marriage and family therapy and are gaining supervised clinical experience. AMFTs and APCCs provide therapy services under the guidance of a licensed supervisor.
  • Associate Clinical Social Worker (ASW or LSW): This credential is held by individuals who have completed their master’s degree in social work and are working toward becoming Licensed Clinical Social Workers (LCSW). ASWs and LSWs gain supervised clinical experience while providing therapy and support services.
  • Clinical Psychology Intern: Clinical psychology interns are doctoral students working toward becoming licensed psychologists. They have completed their masters degree in psychology and are in the process of completing clinical rotations at the doctoral level of their training. These individuals are gaining supervised experience in providing psychological services, including therapy and assessment.
  • Professional Counselor (LPC): Individuals with this credential are working toward becoming fully licensed clinical professional counselors (LCPC). They have completed their master’s degree in counseling and are providing therapy services under supervision.
  • Postdoctoral Psychology Fellow or Resident: A postdoctoral psychologist is working toward becoming a licensed psychologist. They have completed their doctoral degree in psychology and are gaining advanced, supervised experience in the field.

Scope of Practice for Pre-Licensed Credentials

Individuals holding pre-licensed credentials typically provide therapy and counseling services under the supervision of a fully licensed clinician. Clients working with pre-licensed clinicians may receive a fresh clinical perspective from a clinician with education on the latest techniques in the field, along with the added benefit of oversight from an experienced supervisor who has input into their treatment plan. Their scope of practice includes:

  • Conducting therapy sessions.
  • Assessing and diagnosing clients’ mental health concerns.
  • Implementing evidence-based interventions and treatment plans.
  • Collaborating with supervisors to ensure the quality of care.

Limits of Scope for Pre-Licensed Credentials

Pre-licensed clinicians operate under supervision and have some limitations on their practice, which can vary depending on the state regulations and the specific credential. They may require approval or consultation from their supervisors for certain decisions, complex cases, or specific interventions. Additionally, the ability to diagnose and treat certain conditions might be restricted until full licensure is obtained.

Choosing a Pre-Licensed Clinician

When considering a pre-licensed clinician, inquire about their level of supervision, the scope of their practice, and their experience. It’s important to feel comfortable with their credentials and the oversight provided by their licensed supervisor. Pre-licensed clinicians often bring fresh perspectives and dedication to their work, making them valuable choices for individuals seeking effective and affordable mental health care.

Physician Assistants (PAs) and Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners (NPs) as Mental Health Prescribers

In addition to the mental health providers mentioned above, Physician Assistants (PAs) and Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners (NPs) play essential roles in the field of mental health by providing prescription and medication management services. These advanced practice clinicians work closely with individuals who require pharmacological interventions as part of their mental health treatment plans.

Physician Assistants (PAs) in Psychiatry

PAs are medical professionals who can diagnose, treat, and prescribe medications under the supervision of a licensed physician. In the realm of mental health, PAs specializing in psychiatry work with individuals dealing with various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. They assess patients, recommend treatment plans, and prescribe medications as needed. However, their scope does not include in-depth psychotherapy or counseling services.

Scope of Practice for PAs in Psychiatry:

  • Diagnosing mental health conditions.
  • Prescribing and managing psychiatric medications.
  • Collaborating with other mental health professionals for comprehensive care.
  • Providing psychoeducation on medications and treatment options.

Limitations of Scope for PAs in Psychiatry: While PAs can prescribe and manage psychiatric medications, they do not provide psychotherapy or counseling services such as those offered by psychologists, counselors, or therapists. Individuals seeking therapy might need to work in conjunction with other mental health providers to receive comprehensive care.

Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners (NPs)

Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners (NPs) are registered nurses who have pursued advanced education and training in psychiatric and mental health care. They are qualified to provide a wide range of mental health services, including therapy, assessment, diagnosis, and prescription of psychiatric medications. Psychiatric NPs often offer a holistic approach, combining psychoeducation and medication management to address mental health concerns.

Scope of Practice for Psychiatric NPs:

  • Diagnosing mental health disorders.
  • Prescribing and managing psychiatric medications.
  • Offering psychoeducation on mental health and wellness.

Limitations of Scope for Psychiatric NPs: While psychiatric NPs can provide psychoeducation and prescribe medications, their scope does not cover highly specialized therapy modalities or intensive psychotherapy that psychologists, counselors, or clinical social workers might offer. In such cases, collaboration with other mental health providers could enhance the overall treatment plan.

Choosing Between Mental Health Prescribers and Therapists

Deciding between a mental health prescriber like a PA or Psychiatric NP and a therapist (such as a psychologist, counselor, or social worker) depends on the individual’s needs. If medication is a necessary component of treatment, a prescriber can be crucial. However, for in-depth talk therapy or counseling, individuals might benefit from working with a therapist who specializes in psychotherapy and emotional support.


Navigating the world of mental health care can be overwhelming, but understanding the roles and limitations of different mental health providers can make the process easier. Whether you’re seeking medication management, evidence-based therapy, or holistic support, there is a professional suited to your needs. Remember that collaboration among various mental health providers can offer comprehensive care, and finding the right fit is a crucial step toward achieving and maintaining your mental well-being. Always consult with professionals to determine the best approach for your unique circumstances.

Konick and Associates offers a comprehensive approach to mental health treatment. We have a team of psychologists, counselors and social workers with a range of specialties to support your needs. Contact our office or visit our website for more information on how we can work together to support you on your journey to wellness.

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